Statistics Canada produces statistics that help Canadians better understand their country—its population, resources, economy, society and culture. In addition to conducting a Census every five years, there are about 350 active surveys on virtually all aspects of Canadian life.
You can find data about your city in the Census - scroll down to type in your city. For example, Montreal. If you are looking at a specific cultural group in Montreal, such as the Haitian community, you can use the control-F feature on your computer to search for mentions of Haiti. You can view the number of community members who speak Haitian Creole as their mother tongue, number of Haitian immigrants, population by ethnic origin, etc.
The Canadian Community Health Survey gathers health-related data at the sub-provincial levels of geography (health region or combined health regions). You can use the filters on the left, such as Agriculture and Food, which contain data about more specific topics, such as household food insecurity and fruit and vegetable consumption. You can also look at estimates of health characteristics by province, or by small, medium and large population centres. This includes estimates of health conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
Statistics Canada provides data about immigration and ethnocultural diversity, including key results from the 2016 Census on immigrants, second-generation Canadians, and visible minorities. There are also data stories provided for Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. A 2011 document on Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada provides summary details on immigration, ethnic ancestry, visible minority populations and languages, as well as details on where newcomers are settling in Canada. To help you understand how Statistics Canada defines ethnic origin, you can read the definitions and concepts for the Census, as well as the detailed list of ethnic origins used for various surveys.
If you are looking for information about Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, Statistics Canada maintains Statistics on Indigenous Peoples. The Health and Well-Being section contains data on topics such as food security and eating habits. For example, this document provides information and data about food security among Inuit. The Indigenous Population Profiles are available for selected cities and communities.
There are also potentially a number of thematic reports produced by Statistics Canada related to specific communities - for example, Changes in the socioeconomic situation of Canada’s Black population, 2001 to 2016 includes some useful information about the Haitian community in Canada. These can usually be found by searching the Statistics Canada site.